Effect of Stress on Neuroimmune Processes

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Abstract

Purpose: Psychological stress worsens many diseases, especially those with inflammatory components, such as atopic dermatitis (AD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), conditions that are significantly correlated in large epidemiologic studies. However, how stress contributes to these conditions is still poorly understood. This narrative review of the relevant literature advances the premise that stress affects inflammatory processes in AD and ASD via stimulation of mast cells (MCs).

Methods: MEDLINE was searched between 1980 and 2019 using the terms allergies, atopic dermatitis, autism spectrum disorder, brain, corticotropin-releasing hormone, inflammation, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, mast cells, neuropeptides, stress, neurotensin, and substance P.

Findings: Exposure to psychological stress is associated with onset and/or exacerbation of AD and ASD. This association could be attributable to activation of MCs, which are ubiquitous in the body, including the brain, and could contribute to inflammation.

Implications: Understanding and addressing the connection between stress and MCs is important in clarifying the pathogenesis and developing effective treatments for diseases that worsen with stress and involve inflammation, such as AD and ASD.

Keywords: Atopic dermatitis; Autism spectrum disorder; Corticotropin-releasing hormone; Inflammation; Mast cells; Stress.

Source: PubMed

Oxidative Stress in Autism Spectrum Disorder

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 2020 Feb 5. doi: 10.1007/s12035-019-01742-2. [Epub ahead of print]

Bjørklund G1, Meguid NA2,3, El-Bana MA3,4, Tinkov AA5,6,7, Saad K8,9, Dadar M10, Hemimi M2,3, Skalny AV6,7,11,12, Hosnedlová B13,14, Kizek R13,14, Osredkar J15, Urbina MA16, Fabjan T15, El-Houfey AA9,17,18, Kałużna-Czaplińska J19,20, Gątarek P19,20, Chirumbolo S21,22.

Abstract

According to the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), as of July 11, 2016, the reported average incidence of children diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was 1 in 68 (1.46%) among 8-year-old children born in 2004 and living within the 11 monitoring sites’ surveillance areas in the United States of America (USA) in 2012. ASD is a multifaceted neurodevelopmental disorder that is also considered a hidden disability, as, for the most part; there are no apparent morphological differences between children with ASD and typically developing children. ASD is diagnosed based upon a triad of features including impairment in socialization, impairment in language, and repetitive and stereotypic behaviors. The increasing incidence of ASD in the pediatric population and the lack of successful curative therapies make ASD one of the most challenging disorders for medicine. ASD neurobiology is thought to be associated with oxidative stress, as shown by increased levels of reactive oxygen species and increased lipid peroxidation, as well as an increase in other indicators of oxidative stress. Children with ASD diagnosis are considered more vulnerable to oxidative stress because of their imbalance in intracellular and extracellular glutathione levels and decreased glutathione reserve capacity. Several studies have suggested that the redox imbalance and oxidative stress are integral parts of ASD pathophysiology. As such, early assessment and treatment of antioxidant status may result in a better prognosis as it could decrease the oxidative stress in the brain before it can induce more irreversible brain damage. In this review, many aspects of the role of oxidative stress in ASD are discussed, taking into account that the process of oxidative stress may be a target for therapeutic interventions.

Source: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32026227

Role of NMDA receptor autoimmunity induced by food protein containing vaccines, in the etiology of autism, type 1 diabetes, neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders

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October 2018

DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.1463600

Vaccines contain numerous animal and plant proteins (soy, peanut, sesame, maize, wheat, etc.). Vaccine excipients are derived from plant or animal sources. The mechanism of animal protein induced autoimmunity was previously described. Following a report associating maternal gluten intake to type 1 diabetes in the offspring, plant proteins were investigated. The Pandemrix vaccine induced narcolepsy due to molecular mimicry between a H1N1 nucleoprotein peptide in the vaccine and the human hypocretin receptor 2. The BLASTP match score for this peptide was used as a baseline. BLASTP showed strong sequence alignment between gliadin, a wheat protein, and the human ionotropic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). Analyzing further, strong sequence alignment was found between soy, peanut, sesame, maize, wheat and human glutamate receptors (GR), both ionotropic and metabotropic. There are reports of boosted wheat allergy and de novo synthesis of NMDAR antibodies following immunization. Once immunized with plant derived antigens, antibody levels will be increased by dietary exposure to these antigens. GR are expressed in the brain, heart, pancreas and the T cells of the immune system. Vaccine induced GR antibodies (GRA) disrupt or destroy GR thus precipitating numerous disorders. This explains the epidemic of food intolerances and food associated immune mediated disorders. Intestinal barrier disruption has been proposed as a cause for food associated autoimmune disorders. However, intestinal barrier disruption may itself be the result of GRA. GRA also disrupt the blood-brain barrier. This allows other anti-brain antibodies access to their targets. Vaccine-induced GRA can therefore explain a wide variety of disorders including autism, type 1 diabetes, attention deficit hyperactivity, epilepsy, schizophrenia, autoimmune encephalitis, Huntington’s, Parkinson’s, dementia, cancer and allergies. The ultimate solution is to immediately remove all non-target proteins from all vaccines.
Source: ResearhGate

Higher Plasma Concentration of Food-Specific Antibodies in Persons With Autistic Disorder in Comparison to Their Siblings

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Specific IgA, IgG, and IgE antibodies to food antigens in 35 participants with autistic disorder and 21 of their siblings in the Republic of Macedonia were examined. Statistically significant higher plasma concentration of IgA antibodies against alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, casein, and gliadin were found in the children with autistic disorder. Plasma concentrations of IgG antibodies against alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, and casein in participants with autistic disorder were significantly higher. IgE-specific antibodies (alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, casein, and gluten), as well as plasma concentration of total IgE, also were statistically significantly higher in the participants with autistic disorder. Gender differences were found for select IgA, IgG, and IgE (but not for total IgE) food-specific antibodies (kU/L) in the participants with autistic disorder and their siblings.

Stress that parents of autistic children and parents of children with cerebral palsy face with

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Natasha Mateska1, Vladimir Trajkovski2

1unemployed special educator

2University “Ss. Cyril and Methodius”, Faculty of Philosophy, Institute of Special Education and Rehabilitation, Skopje, Republic of Macedonia

Introduction: Autism is a diagnose that affects every member of the family in different ways. Parents should focus a bigger part of their attention toward the autistic child, which can cause a stressful effect in the family as well as outside the family.

Aim of the study: To determine the stress that parents of autistic children face with compared to parents of children with cerebral palsy.

Methodology: The entire sample includes 90 respondents, of which 45 parents of autistic children and the rest 45 parents of children with cerebral palsy. The survey was conveyed using a questionnaire and methods of descriptive and comparative analysis were used. The comparison of the groups of surveyed was analyzed by using χ2 test and Fisher Exact test. The differences that were taken into consideration were on the level of significance p<0.05.

Results: Parents of autistic children compared with parents of children with cerebral palsy, statistically show significant difference for following variables: support from close community (χ2=7.57, df=1, p=0.006), stigmatization by family and community (χ2=5.4, df=1, p=0.02), isolation by the community (χ2=10.3, df=1, p=0.001), change in the relationship between spouses (χ2=7.53, df=1, p=0.006).

Conclusion: The parents of autistic children are faced with bigger stress in managing the everyday activities and control of life, compared with parents of children with cerebral palsy.

Key words: stress, parents, autism, cerebral palsy

Citation: Mateska N, Trajkovski V. Stress that parents of autistic children and parents of children with cerebral palsy face. Book of abstracts ‡ 9th International Scintific Conference – „Special Education and Rehabilitation Today“. Belgrade, September 25-27, 2015; 31.

Plasma concentration of immunoglobulin classes and subclasses in children with autism in the Republic of Macedonia: retrospective study.

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