Paula Weerkamp-Bartholomeus, Ph.D.1, Prof. Dr. Vladimir Trajkovski2
1ReAttach Therapy Institute, Eindhoven, The Netherlands, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
2Institute of Special Education and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Philosophy, University “Ss. Cyril and Methodius” Blvd. Goce Delchev 9A, 1000 Skopje, Republic of Macedonia, e-mail email@example.com
Introduction: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication and restricted and repetitive interests/behaviors, which has considerable impact on daily life functioning. ReAttach is an intervention based on attachment, arousal regulation and training multiple sensory integration processing.
Aim: investigate the effectivity of ReAttach in terms of improvement of daily life functioning.
Method: Eight therapists were trained to perform ReAttach with a group of participants (N=58). Comparison of the mean scores on the Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC) was conducted with a paired sample t-test.
Results: In this study we have explored the potential of 5 sessions of ReAttach to significantly improve the ATEC scores of participants diagnosed with ASD within a short period of time. The results revealed significant decreases of problems (p<0.001) in the subscales: I. Speech (t=9.96, df=57, p=0.000), II. Sociability (t=13.72, df=57, p=0.000), III. Sensory Cognitive Awareness (t=11.91, df=57, p=0.000), IV. Health / Physical / Behavior (t=11.64, df=57, p=0.000) and total scores of the ATEC (t=15.23, df=57, p=0.000).
We made comparison of mean total scores in various diagnosis within the whole ASD group: Autistic disorder (N=6, age M=18.67, SD±6.92, males were 100%) t=4.78, df=5, p=0.005; Asperger syndrome (N=24, age M=27.75, SD±12.88 males were 70.83%) t=10.56, df=23, p=0.000; PDD-NOS (N=24, age M=22.17, SD±11.68, males were 83.33%), t=9.26, df=23, p=0.000; ASD and Intellectual Disability (N=4, age M=26.75, SD±16.17, males were 75%) t=4.40, df=3, p=0.022.
Conclusions: This study confirms that ReAttach has a positive impact on daily life functioning. Practical research confirms the hypothesis that this intervention has a positive effect on various developmental areas described in the ATEC. The results further suggest that people within the entire range of ASD can benefit from ReAttach and the method itself might provide important clues to efficient ASD treatment.
Keywords: autism, innovation, treatment
Citation: Weerkamp Bartholomeus P, Trajkovski V. Multimodalna intervencija za decu i odrasle sa autističnim spektrom poremećaja: „Reattach“. Zbornik rezimea ‡ IV stručno-naučni skup sa međunarodnim učešćem „Aktuelnosti u edukaciji i rehabilitaciji osoba sa smetnjama u razvoju“. Beograd, 24-25 oktobar, 2015; 19.
AUTISM PCP‘ is an innovative cross-sectoral partnership project with strong European
added value; as such, ‘AUTISM PCP’ addresses important horizontal as well as sectoral priorities
for the European Union, such as ‘social inclusion, adult learning policies and Early School
The main objectives of ‘AUTISM_PCP’ are:
– Empowerment of individuals at risk of social exclusion and more specifically empowerment of ASC
– Strengthening of the overall effort for social inclusion and integration of ASC individuals at
mainstream education & society at large
– Enhancing competences of professionals and all those individuals, such as family members & relatives, etc., involved in the life of ASC individuals
– Raise awareness to the general public with regards to social inclusion of pupils with Autism
Let’s take a few minutes to explain the impact of the multimodal approach of ReAttach:
- ReAttach trains Multiple Sensory Integration Processing
- ReAttach trains coherent concepts
- ReAttach trains complex social cognitive skills and we start at a very low entry level
- Our therapists use cognitive bias modification to practise new neuropsychological patterns and new thinking strategies that might be very useful in situations that are quite complicated
This results in:
- The ability to learn from new experiences (problems with transfer disappear)
- The ability to understand social concepts and read the non-verbal cues and social rules and behaviours that are not explicitly explained
- Self-awareness and behaviour control
- Improvement of executive functioning
- Sensory overload decreases or disappears because sensory information can be processed quicker and better in a coherent way (by multiple sensory integration processing)
- The development of new skills such as: imagination, expressing emotions, showing empathy, theory of mind, mentalization, reading your own body signals
With pre-verbal children or adults with autism ReAttach can achieve this:
- Multiple Sensory Integration Processing
- Coherent concepts of the self and others
- Differentiation between the self and others
- Echolalia changes into communication addressing to the self and the other
- Exploration and play.
In the Netherlands we already provide the ReAttach for Autism intervention in institutions for Mental Health, private practises and institutions for people with cognitive disabilities. In WTA March 2015 a case study was published in Dutch.
The method has been presented at the World Autism Organisation Conference in 2014 and 2016 and at the Autism Challenges and Solutions Conference in Moscow, April 2016.
The practical research has been published in Clinical Neuropsychiatry, a peer-reviewed journal for treatment evaluation. It has been rewarded with a nomination of the Clinical Neuropsychiatry Award.http://clinicalneuropsychiatry.org
Prof Dr Vladimir Trajkovski has presented this autism research paper in Belgrade last year and represents us in the Balkan region.
In Prof Dr Michael Fitzgerald’s book Autism Recent Advances there is a chapter on ReAttach about a case study with a patient with Asperger syndrome. http://www.intechopen.com/books/autism-spectrum-disorder-recent-advances/reattach-the-exciting-development-of-a-promising-intervention-for-autism-spectrum-disorders
International training courses are scheduled to deliver the ReAttach for Autism in the upcoming year to: Belgium (Gent, Leuven, Antwerpen), Singapore, United Kingdom (London), Germany (Keulen, Mannheim, Muenster), Italy (Rome), Vancouver BC, Australia (Sydney, Melbourne,) and New York.
For more information you may contact ReAttach Therapy Institute
Autistic disorder is a severe neurodevelopment disorder characterized by a triad of impairments in reciprocal social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication, and a pattern of repetitive stereotyped activities, behaviours and interests. There are strong lines of evidence to suggest that the immune system plays an important role in the pathogenesis of autistic disorder. The aim of this study was to analyze quantitative plasma concentration of immunoglobulin classes, and subclasses in autistic patients and their families. The investigation was performed retrospectively in 50 persons with autistic disorder in the Republic of Macedonia. Infantile autistic disorder was diagnosed by DSM-IV and ICD-10 criteria. Plasma immunoglobulin classes (IgM, IgA, and IgG) and subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) were determined using Nephelometer Analyzer BN-100. Multiple comparisons for the IgA variable have shown statistically significant differences between three pairs: male autistic from the fathers (p = 0,001), female autistic from the mothers (p = 0,008), as well as healthy sisters from the fathers (p = 0,011). Statistically significant differences found between three groups regarding autistic disorder (person with autistic disorder, father/mother of a person with autistic disorder, and brother/sister) independent of sex belongs to IgA, IgG2, and IgG3 variables. Multiple comparisons for the IgA variable have shown statistically significant differences between children with autistic disorder from the fathers and mothers (p < 0,001), and healthy brothers and sisters from the fathers and mothers (p < 0,001). Comparison between healthy children and children with autistic disorder from the same family should be tested for immunoglobulin classes and subclasses in order to avoid differences between generations.
Objectives: A three-year European Union-funded project has been established involving family members, professionals and academics. Its objectives are to develop a core parent autism education curriculum and locally appropriate parent education materials and methods; to provide parent education in three diverse south-eastern European countries (Croatia, Cyprus and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia) where diagnosis and service provision are emergent; to develop local parent education teams within these countries to ensure sustainability; and to evaluate the impact of the parent education events upon families attending.
Methods: After reviewing the literature and surveying parental priorities in the three countries, a 12-hour parent education programme and locally differentiated training materials were developed. In total, five cohorts of approximately 20 parents each will receive parent education within each of the three countries. A combined process and outcome mixed methods evaluation methodology (Royse et al 2009) is being used to evaluate the project. Data are gathered via pre-attendance, post-attendance and follow-up (3-month) parent questionnaires – incorporating the CarerQoL quality of life scale (Hoefman et al 2014) – from all participants, semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of parents, trainer focus groups and reflective diaries, and document analysis. We here report on quantitative (n = 108) and qualitative data (n = 20) from parent cohorts 1 and 2.
Results: Quantitative data identify that >90% of respondents have improved their understanding of autism, >80% report improved child communication and >75% report improvements in overall family life, their ability to predict their child’s behaviour and their ability to respond to concerns and comments from the broader family. Carer QoL data indicate increased parental happiness following attendance (p=.001). Key themes from qualitative data are the positive impact of attending the parent education programme, increased awareness regarding sensory and communication issues and improvements in everyday life. Parents also reported that attendance provided opportunities to meet other parents and reduced social isolation.
Conclusions: Data from parent cohorts 1 and 2 identify that parents who have attended the parent education programme have found it beneficial, and that it has had a positive impact on their family life. Key areas of impact have been improvements in communication and improved management of sensory and behavioural issues. This supports the continued and wider provision of parent education within these countries. Further data from cohorts 3 and 4 will have been collected and analysed by the time of INSAR 2018.
Macedonian Scientific Society for Autism is a general public of residents unique teachers, specialists, restorative specialists, immunologists, allergologists, and other expert and experimental controls, built up by a through and through freedom of the subjects to achieve and facilitate their interests and to perform exercises and activities went for enhancing examination and treatment of the people with a mental imbalance in the Republic of Macedonia. Macedonian Scientific Society for Autism is managing more extensive normal premium, and the Society’s unique points and the assignments: examination components associated with a mental imbalance; examination the impacts of recovery on the people with extreme introvertedness; Â treatment of the people with a mental imbalance; collaboration with the guardians of the kids with a mental imbalance; coordination of legislative and non-administrative associations managing a mental imbalance.
Source: OMICS International
VLADIMIR TRAJKOVSKI, MD, PhD, Full Professor
Macedonian Scientific Society for Autism, Institute of Special Education and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Philosophy, University “Ss. Cyril and Methodius”
Address: Blvd. “Goce Delchev 9A, 1000 Skopje, Republic of Macedonia
Relevance: Clinical heterogeneity among children with neurodevelopmental disorders reflects diversity in strengths and needs that can have important implications for therapeutic management. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is sometimes a co-occurring associated condition of cerebral palsy. Whereas cerebral palsy affects motor functioning, autism affects certain areas of brain development. Cerebral palsy (CP) is primarily a motor disorder, caused by a cerebral lesion occurring in the developing brain.
Purpose: To explore autism spectrum symptoms in children with cerebral palsy (CP), and the association between autism spectrum symptoms and medical and psychiatric co-morbidity.
Results: Over the past two decades there has been greater recognition that risk of mental health and neurobehavioral disorders is shared across the broad continuum of developmental medicine, including cerebral palsy. The current best practice for diagnosing ASD in a child with CP is completing a thorough clinical assessment and combining this with the clinician’s
judgement. The assessment of ASD in the face of CP should entail a detailed history, examination and structured observation of the child’s social and communication skills, complemented with standardized diagnostic instruments which are validated for children with motor difficulties. Both conditions are discovered at roughly the same age, usually. Cerebral palsy is usually discovered a little earlier, at perhaps 6 months to 2 years of age. Autism is discovered a little later, usually by 5 years of age. They are highly variable, with some symptoms present in some children but not others. Both conditions can be very severe or hardly noticeable.
Conclusions: A holistic approach is required when evaluating a child who demonstrates impairments in social communication skills in the presence of motor impairment More attention should be given to autism spectrum symptoms in the regular follow-up of children with CP in an attempt to enhance social functioning.
Key words: cerebral palsy, autism spectrum disorders, neurodevelopmental disorders.
The president of MSSA Prof. Dr. Vladimir Trajkovski is invited lecturer at the VIII interdisciplinary vocational scientific congress with international participation “Children’s cerebral palsy and other disorders in children’s movement”, which will be held from 1 to 2 November 2018 in Moscow, Russia. Within the 30 minute lecture he will speak on the topic: “Association between Cerebral Palsy and Autism Spectrum Disorders”. Besides the lecture, significant contacts are planned with medical institutions from Russia and across Europe.
I am very pleased to inform you that on the great holiday, the Day of the Macedonian Revolutionary Struggle – 23 October 2018, the new website of the Macedonian Scientific Society for Autism was enriched with new contents, new photos and new events. Namely, why new? To be honest, we had no plans to make a new one. But because of the big accident that happened with our former hosting that was going through the company Ars Lamina, who changed the servers, and their webmaster did not update it regularly, it was not back up and we stayed with an old website updated until 2011. Great drama for us with lost lot of data, files and the like. After a couple of weeks of negotiation, will they find a solution, but once I see that they are powerless, I decided to make a new web site and I asked my dear friend and web master Gjorgji Pop Gjorgiev to the magazine JRDDD, which without hesitation accepted and in 15 days we have a new web page. On this occasion I owe him great gratitude to him, but also to the colleagues from Ars Lamina who, although they made us irreparable damage at the moment, still have been hosting our web site for five years. I would like to apologize here (because, it was no our fault, we were not available) to all those who visited our domain in recent weeks and watched old content or an empty page. I sincerely hope that you will like the new website, for which I invite you to visit the above link.
President of MSSA